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Starters Graduate jobs Career news Interviews with starters. Bundesliga mit 20 Vereinen eingeführt. Die Kriterien zur Qualifikation für diese Spielkasse setzte sich sowohl aus technischen, als auch aus sportlichen Kriterien zusammen.
Die Vereine mussten über ein Stadion mit einer Kapazität von mindestens Konnte dieses Kriterium erfüllt werden, kam es auf die sportlichen Kriterien an.
Die jeweils vier besten Mannschaften der Nord- und Süd-Staffel, sowie die Bundesligaabsteiger waren automatisch qualifiziert.
Diese errechnete sich aus den Tabellenplätzen der letzten drei Jahre. Je niedriger diese ermittelte Platzziffer war, desto besser war der Verein platziert.
Da nach der Wiedervereinigung auch Vereine aus der ehemaligen DDR mitspielten, wurde auf 24 Vereine aufgestockt und erneut eine zweigleisige 2.
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Liga doch seit der Einführung der neuen 3. Liga änderte sich die Abstiegsregelung und es wurde fortan die Relegation im Abstiegskampf eingeführt.
Liga durch ein Relegationsspiel gegen den Tabellendritten der 3. Der bislang höchste Erfolg in der Geschichte der 2. Bundesliga gelang dem FC Hansa Rostock.
A knowledge which is not always available. The object of this article is to introduce some facts and factors which controllers must know if active speed control is to be practiced in a sensible way.
It should be made clear that some explana: If there are any differences they are neglible. The following Viscount flight approaching its destination, may serve as an illustration.
The loadfactor which, in normal horizontal flight is equal to. Iift weight finds a limit in 2,5, above which structural damage may occur. At this RSST, which is the same speed as recommended for manoeuvres, stall will occur at 2.
This loadfactor of 2. Under these conditions lower speeds should therefore be avoided because of the possibility of a stall, and higher speeds because of the possibility of a structural failure.
These speeds apply when flying level, climbing or descending through severe turbulence. Flaps should not be extended when flying in severe turbulence.
As speed control cannot be applied when turbulence exists, controllers should be aware of these conditions.
When clear of the turbulent area "normal operating speed" is resumed. While descending and upon entering the terminal area, the aircraft is reduced to the maximum speed below which flaps may be extended to 0 certain degree or in total, depending on the type of aircraft.
When approaching the aerodrome the speed of the aircraft is further reduced to "circuit manoeuvring speed" with 0 flap clean configuration.
Flying at this speed, manoeuvring 1s no longer possible, so the aircraft should be well established. As soon as the decision to land has been taken, flaps are extended fully and speed is reduced to "threshold speed".
Analyzing the above mentioned example one should realize that flight technique varies with particular situations. It depends among other things on weather conditions circuit to be made short circuit, low circuit etc.
Returning to the subject of active speed control, on aircraft approaching to land will reduce speed according to the following sequence: From "normal operating speed" to, successively, "maximum flop extension speed", "circuit manoeuvring speed", flop up clean configuration , "circuit manoeuvring speed" flap portly down, "recommended approach speed", "threshold speed".
The following table is included to give an idea of these speeds for the following types of aircraft: Circuit manoeuvring speed in clean configuration flops up: Suppose a DC 8 is flying in a terminal control area 10 nautical miles behind a Viscount.
There is insufficient space to allow manoeuvring in a lateral way side by side on account of the existence of in- and outbound routings or mountains etc.
The DCB could be delayed by holding, but by applying speed control both aircraft con continue without excessive delay. From the table we see that the DC 8 con be delayed by reducing its airspeed to knots, which is the "flap up manoeuvring speed" at maximum landingweight.
If this is still too high we ask the Indicated Airspeed of the Viscount and it appears to be knots. It is obvious now that the Viscount is also flying at "flap up manoeuvring speed".
To keep sufficient spacing, the DC 8 should be reduced to "circuit manoeuvring speed" knots at maximum landing weight.
The DC 8 is now flying at a groundspeed which is approximately 10 knots in excess of that of the Viscount, which results in a loss of only about 1 nautical mile in separation over a distance of 30 noutico I miles.
The only calculation we now have to make is whether the remaining separation of 9 nautical miles is enough to guarantee 3 nautical miles separation at touch down.
It is indeed sufficient and if you would like to check this, I kindly advise you to read again the article about "Radar spacing techniques for the final approach path" by Tirey K.
Vickers, published in The Controller of October For those who are not in possession of this volume, Fig. The approach speeds of the aircraft in the above mentioned example are knots for the Viscount and knots for the DC 8 at maximum landingwerght In this example we only cons;dered reducing the DC 8.
Another possibility would have been I. It is obvious that pilots are in favour of this positive speed control as long as it prevents them from being delayed over holding points.
Therefore this tool is not only useful for controllers but it will on the other hand save money on the part of airline operators. It prevents the pilot from "dead" flying at low altitudes and will thereby avoid excessive fuel consumption for jet aircraft.
It is not possible of course to give upper and lower limitations for non reducing respectively reducing as these limitations depend on local circumstances terrain etc.
The extent to which controllers can use this technique should be laid down in local instructions after thorough consult with airline operators.
Generally, pilots may be asked to fly at least at maximum flap extension speed until the aircraft is approximately 10 nautical miles from.
In view of the ground-equipment program and as acceptable results can only be obtained with SSR if the necessary airborne equipment is installed, the Netherlands CAD plans to implement the following program on the mandatory carriage of SSR-transponders on board of aircraft.
This problem is published below for the guidance and information of operators. Taking into account Ree. Reducing is possible to this "flap extension speed" and also further down to "flap up manoeuvring speed" at all distances.
As soon as the aircraft is about 15 nautical miles out, it may be further reduced to "circuit manoeuvring speed".
A request to reduce to "recommended approach speed" is only acceptable, if the aircraft is well established on the. Spacing Chart to obtain 3 min.
Numbers show separation required in nautical miles when No. If ground and airborne equipment becomes available in the period up to which will make the use of 4 codes A, B, C and D pulses on modes A, B, C and D possible, a further policy announcement will be made.
It is anticipated that this type of equipment will become mandatory by Opeircitoon and Applications of the Hazeltine Alpha-Numeric Generator An new alpha-numeric generator ANG equipment recently developed by the Hazeltine Corporation provides a long-awaited improvement in air traffic control - the positive association of aircraft identity and altitude information with the aircraft targets shown on radar displays.
The number of channels refers to the number of independent radar displays which the ANG can feed simultaneously. This type of display is installed in many Federal Aviation Agency air traffic control facilities.
The heart of the ANG is the data converter, which converts digital data to television alpha-numeric video. The data converter is analogous to the scan converter which translates the radar picture into television raster form, for bright display.
Converting digital computer data into television raster form, the ANG operates in parallel with the scan converter, as shown in Figure 1.
The outputs of the scan converter and the data converter are combined in a video mixer, to provide a composite television display of radar and alphanumeric data.
The RBDE-5 system uses a lrne television raster which has active lines. Each of these lines is made up of separate picture elements.
Thus the useable raster contains X, or approximately OOO discrete picture elements. By activating appropriate combinations of the memory elements, any alpha-numeric character or other visual symbol may be generated.
This is the smallest matrix which will produce all numerals and all letters of the Roman alphabet, in easily-readible form.
Larger matrices could be designed if necessary to accomodate larger or more complex symbology. Figure 6 shows its main components.
The operation of these components is described below. Controls Each display chan nel is equipped w ith o set of controls to enable the controller to se lect a nd position the data on his display, to enter new o r modified data into the computer, to coordinate target hondoff i nformation, and to transfer target juri sdiction to an o ther channel.
These contro l modules are shown in Figure 7 to l l. All modules ore mounted in conven ient location s in the display console.
Subsequently, th e activation o f on entry button transfers the data to the core memory, as a service command. An inherent characteristic of a ll picto rial ai r traffic co ntrol d isp la ys is that th e d isplay surface con prese nt on ly o two -di mensiona l picture of o situation w hich is taking place in thre e dimens ions.
Th is o fte n causes the fo rgets to overlap. In such co ses the re is a dec ided tendency for the a ssociated target la be ls to ove rlap too.
This characte rist ic con be corrected, by providin g the contro ll er with the ab ility to shift any target la be l to on e o f eight d iffe re nt direc tio ns from its a ssoc iated ta rget.
In add ition, t he co ntrolle r con change the length of the leader lines, to change the d istance between the target labels a nd thei r a ssoc iated targets.
To ovo id the da nger of o verw he lming t he controlle r with too mu ch informat ion, con tro ls o re provided which enable h im to filte r th e a lp ha-nume ric d a ta p resente d o n his d isplay, to suppress t he informatio n w hich is not of immed iate inte rest, and thus increase the visibility of the stra teg ic informa tion w hich is pertine nt to th e si tua tion a t hand.
Th e suppressed informat ion co n b e called up instantly w he n need ed. Th ese bits ore transm itted in pa ra llel, one word a t a time.
The ANG con ha ndle inputs and outputs a t the rote of w ords p e r secon d. The co mputer-ge ne rated target da ta inc ludes a ircraft iden tifi cation, altitud e, b e a con code, and posi tion coo rdi na tes, for e a ch ta rg et.
From 5 to 15 digital wo rds ore necessary to defin e a ll the da ta for a singl e ta rget. Whe never a change in the display d a ta occu rs, th e compu ter furnishes the ANG w ith a co mpl e te new set of target d a ta.
The ta rge t data is rece ived by a buffe r re g is te r and is transferred im media te ly to the co re memo ry for storag e.
Service co m ma nds g e ne ra ted by the ope rato r controls o re transmitted fr om the core memory through on output interface to the compute r.
Core Memory O ne portion of the core mem o ry sto res t he target data received fro m the computer, a nd a lso accumul ates the service comman ds receive d fro m th e var ious o p e ra to r controls.
This portion of the core me mo ry con sto re all th e target a nd co ntrol data for as many a s a ircraft ta rgets. Th e core storag e is shore d used sequ e ntia ll y by a l I display channe ls.
This design concept minimizes th e syste m cost per chan nel. The magnetic core memory hos the extreme ly high d a ta rote cap ability w h ich is necessary for this ty pe of o peration.
A ll target data in the core storage is sca nn ed se quen tia lly to select the data to be displayed by each cha nne l. It receives the targe t do te bi ts fro m the core me mory.
These bits defin e the channel a dd ress leade r, bar, a nd character codes. After the required vectors ore p roce ssed, the leader line and any required bars o re gene rated in a sim ila r ma nner.
Th e a lphanume ric characters a re t he n g enerated. Each cha racter is tra nslated from a six-bit cha ra cte r code word rece ived fro m the core memory, into th e ind ividual seque nce of video-coded bits w hich d e fi ne t he character.
As each character is loade d, the me mory contro l adva nces to the sta rting address of the next cha racter. A space of two dots laterally or three te lev is ion li nes ve rtically, se para tes adjace nt characte rs in the targe t fo rm at.
This me mory un it p rovides 0 separate co re fo r e a ch o f the mo re than individua l dot positions of t he tele vision ras te r. The core is the n ready to co ll ect th e in fo rmation for the next d is p la y channe l.
The d rum rotates o t p recisely l rpm, w hich cor resp o nds to the 30 cycles-per-second fr a me ra te of the television sys te m. The magnetic drum provides a very economical method of storing and reading out regeneratively the nearly 5 OOO OOO bits of information which are required to operate the SPAN system at full capacity.
The drum has not only inherent compatibility with the scan rates used in television systems, but its memory is indestructable except by deliberate erasure.
This provides a safety factor in that the last data will continue to be available on the display even though a failure occurs in the computer or its associated circuitry.
The brightness or intensity of the alpha-numeric data, and the radar data, is separately controllable on the display. An outstanding advantage of the Hazeltine display concept is that whenever the alpha-numeric information is updated or moved on the display, the old information disappears instantly without leaving a smear on the radar indicator.
Video Generator The video generator accepts the drum information, and provides amplification and pulse-shaping functions to prepare its output for the video mixer.
Video Mixer A separate video mixer is provided for each display channel. Each video mixer accepts and integrates the outputs of the scan converter and the video generator of the.
You're just about to doze off at the board. Traffic-count is made; two more hours to go and the night shift will be over. So much for the state of affairs on the ground.
Meanwhile, about 10 kilometres above, on the flight deck of Speedliner , the crew are also looking forward to the end of a strenuous tour of duty.
Some 75 miles, then that beloved high-level let down, and they'll have made it. The reply comes immediate and unexpected "Mountain Control from Speedliner , go ahead".
Undoubtedly they want to give us an en-route descent. But - ", Mountain Control, test out". Who are you please? Whatt is my name. Yes, what's your name?
My name is John Watt. The same principles can be used in other types of systems to translate computer-derived data. The data converter concept used in the Hazeltine ANG is easily adaptable to color television displays.
Using this concept, Hazeltine has successfully developed and demonstrated various color TV displays of alpha-numeric and pictorial information, over the past two years.
Will you tell me your name? My name is Knott. Would you like another call? He convinced me he had never made a radar approach before and that he knew nothing about the procedures used.
After a brief explanation of what was to take place, I identified the target and the maiden approach got under way. As I remember it, it was about at this point.
Being alert and on the ball, I gave traffic information, "Traffic, ten o'clock", etc. I could tell this didn't go over too well.
The pilot must have scratched his head, then asked, "Did you say there was some other traffic at ten o'clock? There was another pause and, "Errr With no hesitation the reply came back loud and clear, "You can just forget all about your silly radar approach; I can't wait until after ten o'clock to land!
The major components in an SSR system are shown in Fig. The main choice to be made by Administrations purchasing SSR ground equipment which will meet ICAO recommendations lies between two types of equipment:.
What is the maximum. Thus, a degree of standardisation has been achieved for the airborne element of the SSR system.
However, in planning ground SSR installations, it is not possible to have a "standard" system, since operational requirements, availability of sites, technical and financial considerations can all effect the configuration of the equipment.
How many displa I. Y conso es to be fitted with SSR? When the engineer has 0 clea. Some of the dec1s1ons to be made ore given below. Operational Requirements The golden rule to observe before choosing an SSR system is to decide on the exact operationo I facilities required, both initially and for the future.
The sort of questions which must be answered are:. By mounting the SSR antenna directly on the primary array, Azimuth coincidence of both radars is assured, and separate turning gear is not required, but 1 or 2 additional channels in the rotating joint are necessary and may not be available in the primary.
Again, certain primary radar scanners may not have sufficient mechanical strength to carry the additional weight and windage.
With an off-mounted SSR aerial, operational flexibility is enhanced, since the SSR can be used independently, or in conjunction with a second primary in the event of breakdown of the main primary radar.
The off-mounted SSR aerial should be sited as close to the primary head as possible, since azimuth errors between primary and secondary returns become greater as the distance between the two radar heads increases.
The SSR aerial system can be composed of separate interrogation and control antennas Fig. Alternatively, these two elements may be combined in one physical structure, known as an integral aerial Fig.
The integral aerial is preferable, since it ensures coincidence of the interrogation and control patterns in the vertical plane. However, such an aerial necessitates either a high speed switch on the aerial, or an additional channel in the rotating joint.
A separate control aerial needs careful siting in order to prevent "shadowing" by the interrogator array and to ensure adequate matching of the vertical pattern.
However, when used in the on-mounted role 1 it obviates the need for an additional SSR channel in th e primary rotating joint.
The Video Link The choice of video link see Fig. If the radar site is remotely situated, a microwave radio link will be required.
Where the radar is relatively close to the operations building, a cable link with repeaters as necessary can be used.
A typical interlace facility is for triple-mode interlace with reversion to a priority mode and a multiple choice of interlace programmes.
The choice of video processing equipment depends on the complexity of the traffic problems and can range from a simple manual system, up to full automatic data processing.
If future use of computers is envisaged, it should be ascertained that the manual video processing equipment chosen is capable of being built-up to flt into the automatic system at a later stage.
System Monitor Secondary Surveillance Radar is a communication system and such a system can be proved by the transmission of a signal and reception of the correct reply.
This is done by means of a ground system monitor which monitors the major parameters of the transmissions and gives warning when the tolerances are exceeded.
This process is known as "Video Processing" and consists of: Rejection of asynchronous replies defruiting. Rejection of garbled information degarbling.
Marshalling of Modes and Codes decoding. Selection and presentation of the information actually required by the controller selection and readout. Continuity of Service In order that continuity of service can be retained in the event of breakdown, or during maintenance periods, it is normally accepted that dual radar channels are required.
One channel is normally "Operational" and the other at "Standby". The amount of back-up equipment purchased is dictated by the intensity of the traffic, hours of operation and the financial backing available.
In the event of mechanical breakdown in the primary or secondary element, the other service can still be used independently. Here, four mechanical combinations and eight electronic combinations are possible.
For a major high-density installation, where full roundthe-clock service must be assured, two dual channel SSR,. This device, similar to an adding machine keyboard, automates the thumbwheels, eliminates the need for the controller to reach to his control box, and materia I ly increases the speed of data entry.
Th is feature also permits automatic transfer of an actively decoded unknown target to the first available selected channel for tracking purposes.
The advanced decoder system can provide a completely assembled digital message for transferring all SSR data to a computer input channel. These data, including identity, altitude, mode, and target coordinates are available in a single digital word per target per antenna scan.
The word is formatted by field and flexible in voltage level, for wide usability with a variety of digital computers of varying copobility.
On-Mounted Aerial The operational limitation with on-mounted aerial is that in the. Figures Sa, b, and c give the same number of electronic channels and mechanical facilities as in Figs.
Thus, operational flexibility is halved, compared with the off-mounted aerial. We have described an SSR system available toda d.
As such, the system can comprise on integral part of any ATC system now and for the foreseeable future. The Eng li sh version has kindly been provided by H.
One of the res ponsibilities of Air Troffic Serv ices is to provide early w arn ing of heavy t hunderstorms. This does not constitute a problem within western Europe where a den se network of meteorologica l observation stations is available.
The task becomes more difficult over the Ocean or in less popu lated areas where there ore on ly few meteorologica l stations.
Airport weather radars with their range of approximately km ore inadequate for long range detection of thunderstorms. A device hos been developed at the Heinrich-Hertz-Institute, Berlin-Chorlottenburg to meet this need, and hos been in operation at this location for more than one year 1 ].
The equipment makes use of the fact that lightning is a broa dband tran smitter for very long waves w hich ore propagated in the zone between the surface of the earth and the ionosphere.
Such impulses produced by lightning ore known as atmospheric disturbances or " atmosp herics". Th e equipment consists of a D F receiver and a narrowband amp lifier.
During the recor ding period, the spectral amp litude of each atmospheric disturbance appears as a dot on an oscillogroph, its displayed position d epending on th e azimuth.
A example of a record is shown in figure 1. The photograph was token during a 10 kc setting, us ing a poloro id camera wi th on exposur e ti me of 5 minutes.
The ord inate indicates az imuth of incidence; the abscissa shows the spectral amplitude of the atmospherics in units of rece iver output vo ltage U.
In figure 1, severa l thunderstorms co n clearly be indentified, t he ligh tning sig nals of wh ich ore distinct from th e background noise caused by more distant thunderstorms.
It con be d emon strated that the number of atmosph erics exceeding a r eceiver th resho ld volta ge U equal s. In our example the distance is g 1 OOO km from the obser-.
Further recordings were made at 5 kcs and 10 kcs sett ing. Th us the total. Si nce thi s product is ba sica ll y kn own.
Figure 1 shows a thunderstorm in an eastsouth-easterly direction at a distance of 1 km with a sequence of 60 discharges per minute.
The evaluation is very simp le and quick to accomplish and can also be automated. The range of the equipment is approximately km during summer daytime, and about km during winter daytime.
The lower range limit, close to km, is equal to the range of weather radars. Accuracy increases as more recordings ore made on frequencies below 20 kcs.
If on ly the location of t hunderstorms is of interest, a more convenient method may be appl ied. For propagation in the frequ ency range between 3 and 10 kcs and for distances in excess of about km, first reflection from the Ionosphere is the determin ing feature.
Its group ve locity is frequency-dependent and the difference in group transit t ime of d ischarges with two adjacent frequencies is. If the arrival times of d ischarge signals are measured on two adjacent frequencies and the difference determined , th is time d ifference, according to equation 2, is proportiona l to the d istance of t he lightning flash.
Figure 3 Colculoted value g.. FB as a function of distance at 5 and 10 kcs in daylight conditions.
Figure 4 s hows as an example the recording of the group transit time difference of discharge signals on two adjacent frequencies as a funct ion of az imuth.
Again the ordinate indicates th e azimuth. In this example the abscissa is d ivided in proport ion to the group transit time difference and shows d irectly, as per equation 2, the d istance of the ligh tning discharges.
Certa in groupings of dots con be observed which allow the locatio n of the thunderstorm to be determined by direction and distance. The width of the dot groups is partly due to technical reasons, partly due to the fact that the phase references of the individ ual discharges, which ore statistically distributed, are added to the g roup transit time.
The sizes of the dot groups consti tute at the same time a qualitative mea sure of th e inte nsiti es of the thunderstorms. This method allows separate observation of thunderstorms which are situated beh ind each other os viewed fro m the rece iver positio n.
Messung der Verteilung der spektro len Amplituden van Atmospherics unter Berucksichtigung des Einfollswinkels, Elektron. Figure 4 10 minute s exposure on the osc illogroph onb thel: Untersuchungen uber dos stotistische Amplitudenspektrum otmosphii rische r Storungen von einzelnen G ewitlerhe rden, Nochr.
Bemerkungen zur Austin'schen Forme l, Zeitschr. Box Malton, Ontario Canada J. Reuss, published in January by Sudwestdeutsche Verlogsonstolt GmbH, Mannheim; pages with pictures, tables, and orgonigrommes, Plastic cover with silver letter impression; DM 19, This hos come about because the yearbook contains a wealth of information about every sector of Germon aviation.
The "Johrbuch hir Luft- und Roumfohrt" is subdivided into the follow. Aviation Legislation; Organisation of the aviation administration in the Federal Republic of Germany; Germon aviation and space research, technical and scientific institutes; Space aeronautics; Air traffic; Aviation and space economics; The Germon Aviation Club Club der Luftfahrt ;.
This, of course, is just o list of headings, but if one examines one of the chapters, say, the German aviation administration one will find a lot of detail on the Ministries of Tronspu1 I, Defence, Scientific Research, Finances, Interior, Justice, Communications, and Economics.